Tuesday, 23 May 2017

12Y & 12Z - work to do


  • Set up a temporary blog using the following: yournamea2media1718.blogpot.co.uk
Continue your research into the following types of video:
  • Performance based videos
  • Narrative based videos
  • Disjunctive (abstract/weird videos)
Look at videos across different genres and from across the history of music video. Think about what you like about each video and make notes on the elements you might utilise in your own work.

Both classes have two lessons on this - the work produced should be considerable. I expect at least 10 videos on each blog with descriptions for your choices.

Friday, 19 May 2017

Andrew Goodwin’s seven features of music video


In His Book Dancing in the Distraction Factory Andrew Goodwin points out characteristics and features that can be found in music videos.

  1. Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics. (e.g. stage performance in metal videos, dance routine for boy/girl band, aspiration in Hip Hop). 
  2. There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals. The lyrics are represented with images. (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting). 
  3. There is a relationship between music and visuals. The tone and atmosphere of the visual reflects that of the music. (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting). 
  4. The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which recur across their work (a visual style). 
  5. There is frequently reference to notion of looking (screens within screens, mirrors, stages, etc) and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body.
  6. The artist may develop motifs or iconography that recur across their work (a visual style)
  7. There are often intertextual reference (to films, TV programmes, other music videos etc).

Music Video Analysis

Music Video Analysis - Example 3

Music Video Analysis - Example 2

Music Video Analysis - Example 1

The A2 Course Outline


The course is worth 200 marks in total - 100 for the coursework and 100 for the exam.

The coursework brief consists of:
  • A music video
  • A CD digipak
  • A magazine advert to promote the CD/album
You also have to undertake relevant research and planning and answer four evaluation questions.

The exam consists of two parts:
  1. Two  30 minute questions on the work you have completed over the previous two years
  2. One question on postmodern media
Mark allocation

Coursework:
  • 20 marks - Research and planning
  • 40 marks - Music video
  • 10 marks - CD digipak
  • 10 marks - Magazine advert
  • 20 marks - Evaluation

Exam:
  • 25 marks - Question 1a
  • 25 marks - Question 1b
  • 50 marks - Question 2 postmodern media


Thursday, 18 May 2017

Andrew Goodwin's Theory

Andrew Goodwin received his Ph.D. in Cultural Studies from the University of Birmingham, England. He is the author of a well-known book on Music Television and cultural theory (Dancing in the Distraction Factory. Music Television and Popular Culture, University of Minnesota Press) and he has published numerous articles on media and cultural theory. His areas of interest include media aesthetics, critical theory and popular music. Professor Goodwin serves on the Editorial Board of Popular Music & Society, is a Corresponding Editor for Media, Culture & Society and writes for Tricycle, Inquiring Mind, and theworsthorse.net. He is currently writing a book about Led Zeppelin.


Tuesday, 16 May 2017

Revision test

Define the following terms:
  1. Hardware
  2. Content
  3. Pre-production
  4. Production
  5. Post-production
  6. Marketing
  7. Above the line marketing
  8. Below the line marketing
  9. Distribution
  10. Exchange
  11. Synergy
  12. Cross media convergence
  13. Institution
  14. Audience
  15. Consumption
  16. Contemporary
  17. Proliferation

Add the relevant detail for both films

Star Wars; The Force Awakens:
  1. Budget
  2. Box office gross (global)
  3. Director
  4. Production companies
  5. Producers
  6. Distributor
  7. Number of screens
  8. Marketing strategies

Ex Machina:
  1. Budget
  2. Box office gross (global)
  3. Director
  4. Production companies
  5. Producers
  6. Distributor
  7. Number of screens
  8. Marketing strategies


Monday, 15 May 2017

Audience and Institution Questions



January 2010
“Media production is dominated by global institutions, which sell their products and services to national audiences”. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

June 2010
What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media institutions and audiences?

January 2011
Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the production and exchange of media texts in your chosen media area?

June 2011
“Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good production practices”. To what extent would you agree with this statement, within the media area you have studied?

January 2012
To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of media products in the area of media you have studied?

June 2012
"Cross media convergence and synergy are vital processes in the successful marketing of media products to audiences." To what extent do you agree with this statement in relation to your media area?

January 2013
What impact does media ownership have upon the range of products available to audiences in the media area you have studied?

June 2013
Evaluate the role of digital technologies in the marketing and consumption of products in the media are you have studied.

June 2014
The increase in hardware and content in media industries has been significant in recent years. Discuss the effect this has had on institutions and audiences in the media area you have studied.

June 2015
To what extent does media ownership have an impact on the successful distribution of media products in the media area that you have studied?

Audience and Institutions-The 7 Key Concepts


Section B: Institutions and Audiences

Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with:

the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
• the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;
• the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange;
• the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;
• the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;
• the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;
• the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.

the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary (current) media practice

The depth and range of ownership across a range of media and the consequences of this ownership for audiences in terms of the genres and budgets for films. How for instance, can Channel4's Film4 survive in the British market place against the high concept, big-budget films made by Newcorp's FOX, Warner Bros, Disney, Universal, etc.? What kinds of niche audiences are left for Film4 to attract? Are mass audiences out of reach given the genres of films Film4 have the budgets to make? How successful have they been in reaching mass audiences with their films? How healthy is it that just a few mega media groups can own such a range of media and can decide what the public may see, and, perhaps, shape audience's tastes?

• the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing

 Digital technology is enabling various media to converge in hubs, platforms and devices. For instance, mobiles phones do a lot more than act as hand held telephones: you can download and watch films and TV programmes, use them as alarm clocks, watches, play music on them, take photos and short films, text, go online, use GPS functions, a range of apps, and a whole lot more. New HD TVs, Playstations, X-Boxes, iPads, Notebooks, MacBooks, etc. are also examples of hubs which in which a variety of media technologies can converge for convenience for users. Media convergence is having an enormous impact on the film industry because of the ways in which institutions can produce and market for audiences/users on a widening range of platforms, capable of receiving their films.



Synergies can come out of an organisation's size; smaller media organisations such as Channel4 can-cross promote their films, etc. but the scale of cross-media promotion is nowhere near as great as that which can be gained by massive media organisations. Film4 is therefore unable to promote their lower budget films on a level playing field.

• the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange

The audience's ability to interact with films by, for instance, using digital technology to put extracts on You Tube and overlay new sound tracks on them, etc. and make answering videos has been greatly enhanced by Web 2.0; Film studios can make films using CGI, greenscreen and other special effects that were impossible to make only a few years ago. The ways of filming and editing films have changed, too, with the introduction of digital film and film cameras, editing software, laptops, digital projectors, etc. Distributors market films using the latest software for designing high-concept film posters and trailers. They can use phone apps., online marketing, Twitter, etc. File-sharing and piracy are growing issues because the software exists to take the protective encryption of DVDs, etc and WEB 2.0 enables people to make and share copies of films easily. One way in which film companies are trying to get around this is by releasing films soon after theatrical release by selling them on video-on-demand, premium TV channels and downloads. US and UK cinemas chains are not happy about this, especially after all the investment some have made on digital equipment, projectors, etc. which unfortunately quickly goes very quickly out of date!

• the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences

This means the increase of something: i.e. digital cameras, software, CGI, 3D films, film genres, etc. which are part of current trends; how significant is this for See Saw Films or Film4? Or are they still able to be successful without it by making films with genres that do not need the latest breakthroughs in digital technology? Research the film company's use of cameras, special effects, software, posters, digital distribution of films, etc.

• the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences

This is a WEB 2.0 issue and how technology is coming together in hubs like laptops is one of the features of our age; the mobile phone in your pocket is a great example of technological convergence: it can do so much more than a simple phone call; think how this is affecting film making at the production, marketing and exhibition stages? The Internet is acting as a hub for many aspects of film: you will find film posters, YouTube videos on films, interviews, trailers, official film and blog websites, etc. on it.  Audiences can also remake their own films by creating extracts and running new scores over them and then posting them on YouTube. This often leads to answering videos, never mind the comments, etc. that people make  on such sites. The internet, film and videos games seems to be converging in so many ways. People can watch films in a range of ways, using an astonishing range of hardware and software. They can also find audiences of their own. This amounts to free publicity for film institutions for their films and "A Long Tail" sales into the future through endless exchange.

• the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions

"Slumdog Millionaire" was originally aimed at Asian audiences living in various parts of the UK and also at Danny Boyle fans. The film's unexpected success at film festivals and being nominated for the Oscars led to another theatrical release and a crossover from the "indy" art-house into the mainstream. British film makers often make social realism films and aim them at local and regional audiences whereas this would never be enough for the major media players who tend to make high budget, high concept films. They have boutique offshoots who make and often distribute lower budget films, aimed at more high brow audiences. Disney's Mirimax and Fox's Fox Searchlight are examples of such boutique, art-house film distribution.

• the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour
How you consume films whether it is as a social activity after visiting a shopping centre or on an MP4 player or Playstation, is what is at issue here. Visit Pearl and Dean to see how multiplex cinemas are adapting the experience of cinema-going to gain audiences. In an age of falling DVD sales, home cinema and an increase in downloading for both music and film audiences are changing in how they want to consume film. Identify trends and consider where the audience trends are going in the near future.

This unit should be approached through contemporary (up-to-date) examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.


Thanks to DOG for this post.

LINK

Friday, 12 May 2017

Disability-individual and social models



Dominant notions of disability: the individual model
The societal view of disability generally conforms to the individual or overcoming or medical model of disability. This holds that disability is inherent in the individual, whose responsibility it is to ‘overcome’ her or his ‘tragic’ disability.
Often this ‘overcoming’ is achieved through medical intervention, such as attempts at ‘cures’. For example, top wheelchair athlete Tanni Grey-Thompson was forced as a child to wear heavy leg callipers which gave her blisters, rather than being offered the simple and practical option of using a wheelchair.
This approach to disability aims for the normalisation of disabled people, often through the medicalisation of their condition.

The social model of disability
This distinguishes between impairment (the physical or mental 'problem') and disability (the way society views it as being a negative). It holds that impairments are not inherently disabling, but that disability is caused by society which fails to provide for people with impairments, and which puts obstacles in their way.
Examples include access: the built environment often does not allow access for people with mobility problems. Discriminatory attitudes are also disabling: for example, the idea that disability is a personal tragedy for the ‘sufferer’ impinges upon disabled people in a variety of negative ways, from their social relationships to their ability to get jobs.
"Disability is produced in different forms, and in different proportions, in different cultures" (Oliver, 1996).

Difference
It has been argued that dominant notions of ‘normality’ and beauty do not allow for the natural range of difference in human form. These notions are not only prejudicial to the acceptance of disabled people, but also increasingly impact on non-disabled people. Charlotte Cooper, for example, applies the social model to obesity, and concludes that there are some important categories through which obesity can be defined as a disability:
• A slender body is ‘normal’
• Fatness is a deviation from the norm.
• Fat and disabled people share low social status.
• Fatness is medicalised (e.g. jaw-wiring and stomach-stapling).
• Fat people are blamed for their greed and lack of control over their bodies.
Consider why it is that fat people or disabled people are rarely portrayed as sexually attractive.

Use of disabled stereotypes



The media continue to enforce disability stereotypes portraying disabled individuals in a negative un-empowering way.

In his 1991 study, Paul Hunt identified 10 stereotypes that the media use to portray disabled people:

The disabled person as pitiable or pathetic
An object of curiosity or violence
Sinister or evil
The super cripple
As atmosphere
Laughable
His/her own worst enemy
As a burden
As Non-sexual
Being unable to participate in daily life


Shakespeare (1999) presents a potential reason behind the use of one of these stereotypes:

"The use of disability as character trait, plot device, or as atmosphere is a lazy short-cut. These representations are not accurate or fair reflections of the actual experience of disabled people. Such stereotypes reinforce negative attitudes towards disabled people, and ignorance about the nature of disability"

In other words, the disability itself is often used as a hook by writers and film-makers to draw audiences into the story. These one-dimensional stereotypes are often distanced from the audience - where characters are only viewed through their impairment, and not valued as people.

Shakespeare (1999) continues:

"Above all, the dominant images [of disabled people] are crude, one-dimensional and simplistic."

Representation of Disability


Monday, 8 May 2017

Essay 12Y

Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the production and exchange of media texts in your chosen media area?

LINK

Thursday, 4 May 2017

12V/MS1

Complete the following question:

January 2012

To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of media products in the area of media you have studied?

Use the plan provided.
You have one hour.