Monday, 10 December 2012

Representation of Disabilty-The Street (12C MS1)

1 Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of  disability using the following:

• Camera shots, angles, movement and composition
• Editing
• Sound
• Mise en scène
[Total 50]

EAA: Explanation, analysis, argument-20 marks
EG: Use of example-20 marks
T: Terminology-10 marks

Film 4 Revision

Thursday, 6 December 2012

12A & 12C Essay

What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media institutions and audiences?

Use all the research you have conducted for the films covered in lessons. Also read the example essay you have been given for tips on content and structure.

Make sure you look at the markscheme. This will help in terms of how precise you need to be in the three areas of assessment.

The essay is due:
12C Thursday 13th December, 
12A Wednesday 12th December.

Wednesday, 5 December 2012

3D Movies Run Amok: A Fad That Should Stop… But Won’t

Click on image for article. It is a rant against the rise of 3D films. It was written 2 years ago but the main points are still vaild.

IMAX: definition

IMAX (an abbreviation for Image Maximum) is a motion picture film format and a set of cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted (or upgraded) into IMAX format for display in IMAX theatres and some have also been partially shot in IMAX.

IMAX is the most widely used system for special-venue film presentations. As of September 2012, there are 697 IMAX theatres in 52 countries.

Click on image to go to IMAX Wikipedia page.

The growth of IMAX and it's convergence with Warner Bros.

Warner Bros. and IMAX have had a successful partnership over the last few years, and now the two companies have announced that they will work together on up to twenty more films through 2013.
As part of the announcement, there are a few details on notable films. One is a release date for The Hobbit (December 2013) and another is the first ‘official’ acknowledgment of Batman 3, which is mentioned as one of the ‘additional 15 films’ to be released in IMAX between 2011 and 2013 alongside Superman and Dark Shadows. Note that this press release comes from IMAX, not Warner Bros., but this still reveals a window of release for the new Batman and Superman films.
IMAX Corporation and Warner Bros. Pictures, a unit of Time Warner Inc., announced today that they have completed an agreement to release up to 20 Warner Bros. films in IMAX’s format over the course of the next three and a half years (from 2010 through 2013). The agreement strategically aligns Warner Bros.’ tent-pole business with the increasing worldwide popularity of The IMAX Experience(R) in both 2D and IMAX(R) 3D, providing the studio with an added distribution platform that consistently delivers strong box office returns. The agreement underscores the excitement around the studio’s future films which are anticipated to be among the best Hollywood event titles slated for release in the coming years.
Under the agreement, Warner Bros. movies that will be released in IMAX are: Legends of the Guardian: The Owls of Ga’Hoole 3D (September 24, 2010); Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (3D) (November 19, 2010); Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part II (3D) (July 15, 2011); Happy Feet 2 (3D) (November 18, 2011); and The Hobbit (December 2013). Warner Bros. and IMAX also plan to release an additional 15 films over the course of 2011, 2012 and 2013, including Gravity, Dark Shadows, Fury Road, Batman 3, and Superman.
 “Our track record with IMAX has been incredible, and incorporating 3D into this collaborative effort will serve as the ultimate experience for our audiences,” said Dan Fellman, President, Domestic Distribution, Warner Bros. Pictures. “We are extraordinarily proud of our forthcoming slate and eager to offer these films to audiences in the most premium of movie-going experiences.”
“We’re thrilled to join with IMAX in bringing global audiences new and exciting experiences through the 3D IMAX format,” said Veronika Kwan-Rubinek, President, International Distribution, Warner Bros. Pictures. “We have a tremendously powerful slate of quality tentpole films, and as IMAX theaters continue to expand internationally, more and more audiences will have the opportunity to experience our films using this exciting format.”
“Warner Bros. is and has been an important strategic partner for IMAX. The success of our partnership to date is a result of our integrated approach to marketing and release strategies, and we believe this formula will lead to more box office success in the future,” said Richard L. Gelfond, CEO of IMAX. “Our digital theatre system has accelerated the growth of our theatre network and provides us with significant flexibility in the release and programming schedule in our theatres. This important announcement provides increased visibility into our future film slate, enabling existing and potential exhibitors to better know what’s ‘coming soon’ in their IMAX(R) theatres.”

“IMAX has a deep appreciation for Warner Bros.’ approach to the film business; they consistently work with the industry’s most talented filmmakers, produce and release blockbuster films that captivate global audiences and make going to the movies a fun, powerful and inspiring experience,” said Greg Foster, Chairman and President of IMAX Filmed Entertainment. “We are confident that continuing to team with Warner Bros. to distribute market, promote and showcase their ‘all-star’ titles in IMAX will delight movie-goers around the world and achieve box office and critical success that will benefit our two companies and our exhibitor partners.”
Since June 2003, Warner Bros. Pictures has released 25 titles in IMAX’s format, 10 of which featured IMAX 3D, including several live action pictures that were partially converted into 3D with IMAX’s proprietary 2D-to-3D conversion technology. Warner Bros. films have generated approximately $565 million in box office revenues at IMAX theatres around the world. Each Hollywood title was digitally re-mastered into the image and sound quality of The IMAX Experience using IMAX’s proprietary IMAX DMR(R) (Digital Re-Mastering) technology. Also included in the tally are the studio’s four original IMAX 3D co-productions, “NASCAR 3D” (2003), “Deep Sea 3D” (2008), “Under the Sea 3D” (2009) and “Hubble 3D,” in select IMAX theatres now.

4D Film

4D film or 4-D film is a marketing term for an entertainment presentation system combining a 3D film with physical effects that occur in the theatre in synchronization with the film. (Note that 4D films are not actually four-dimensional in the geometric sense of the word.) Because physical effects can be expensive to install, 4D films are most often presented in custom-built theatres at special venues such as theme parks and amusement parks. However, some movie theatres have the ability to present 4D versions of wide-release 3D films. The films Journey to the Center of the Earth (2008) and Avatar (2009) are among the films that have received a 4D treatment in certain theatres.[1]
Effects simulated in a 4D film may include rain, wind, strobe lights, and vibration. Seats in 4D venues may vibrate or move a few inches during the presentation. Other common chair effects include air jets, water sprays, and leg and back ticklers. Hall effects may include smoke, rain, lightning, air bubbles, and special smells (for example, fireworks smells at the London Eye's Experience, and gassy smells when a stinkbug sprays it in It's Tough to be a Bug).
4D films have occasionally been marketed as 5D, 6D, or 7D films in order to emphasize the variety or uniqueness of their theatre effects. However, there is no consistent standard among films for the application of these marketing labels.

Click on the image above to go to the wikipedia page for 4D.

Click on the image below to read an article about the future of 4D.

Friday, 30 November 2012

12A & 12C ESSAY

 As you will have noticed, I'm not in today.Your work is to make notes for and then complete the following essay title:

“Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good production practices”. To what extent would you agree with this statement, within the media area you have studied?

Use all the research you have conducted for the films covered in lessons. Also read the example essay you have been given for tips on content and structure. Good luck.

The essay is due:
12C Tuesday 4th December, 
12A Wednesday 5th December.

Tuesday, 27 November 2012

Case Studies-Production and Distribution

Avatar (A) - James Cameron's (A) was given a budget of 237 million US dollars, and therefore explored new technologies such as CGI and 3D to new levels. Recording with two shot camera's Cameron could develop the illusion of depth to the best possible quality and could create a full animated film with the use of motion capture suits and skull caps to enhance the realism of human emotions and actions. Not only did the mass amount of production costs make the film successful but the marketing campaign fuelled by large finances was able to entice and capsulate global audiences. Almost 6 months before its official release date "Avatar Day" was created to show a 25 minute clip of the film in all cinema's around the globe. This allowed mass audiences to become attached and intrigued with the film and advertise the film for the company, by word of mouth spreading the excitement up to the release of the film. This therefore promoted box office figures and synergy for the film, without the finances made available though this would have not been able to be successful showing the finances available to big six companies, in this case "20th Century Fox" importance. Avatar grossed a total of 2.6 billion US dollars up to date.

Slumdog Millionaire (SM) - (SM) was produced by British companies Film 4 and Celador Films with a budget of 15 million US dollars but even so was still a massive success grossing $240 million and winning 8 oscars. They used technology such as SI - 2K camera's to be able to record on location and create costraphobic, closed in scenes which in return was effective in relating to the audience and narrative. The camera men also had hard drives attached to their back so they could record in flowing scenes, sending information back to a main computer, making production costs cheaper and less time consuming. Warner Independent ( a subsidiary of Warner Brothers) pulled out of distributing the film, but Fox Searchlight rescued the film by re-branding the marketing scheme and concentrating the advertising around the romantic part of the narrative, therefore making the film reach out to a larger audience. They also played the film at film festivals which in conclusion founded the start of advertisement by the search engine TUG, which using widgets and click-links that directed 75,000 people to the SM official webpage allowing them to view teaser and official trailers. This could show British films can be just as successful as Hollywood Blockbusters, but it also may critically show how they cannot compete without the help of Hollywood institutions, in this case the subsidiary of 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight.

Kick Ass (KA) - Produced by the British company MARV Films (KA) had an inital budget of $28 million, very large for a British company, and this was because $10.5 million was spent on distributing the film by the North American company Lionsgate. This left a budget of $17.5 million on production, which was almost eqaully spent on above the line costs and below the line costs along with script costs. Kick Ass wanted to successful gain an American Audience along with a British and therefore had a larger budget. Location was one way in which production tryed to entice american audience, with allot of filming taking part in Canada & America along with England, and the actor Nicholas Cage (A very famous actor from America) was extra insentive for the American audience to become attracted to the film. Lionsgate's marketing scheme consisted with the constant release of new posters and teaser trailers that slowly revealed the idea of super heroes without powers. The first batch of posters saw each individual charcter have their own, with their back turned to the camera and the word KICK-ASS was spelt if all posters were placed together, this revealed the name of movie but deliberately didn't reveal allot of information about the characters which got the audience wondering and intrigued about what they could be like. A second batch of posters were then distributed out, revelaing each individual character again but this time concentrating on the colour scheme of each and a front shot, which enticed and attracted the audiences attention, each poster had a url adress that seemingly linked them to the characters own website, instead all of them linkign to the (KA) official website were teaser and full length trailers could be watched. (KA) in return had box office figures of $96 million and won Best British FIlm in the Empire Awards. ($48 million grossed in North America).

Cloverfield (CF) - Renown for its distribution and marketing campaign, (CF) had a very small budget in Hollywood terms of $25 million, but still grossed a total of $170 million thanks to one of the big 6 companies "Paramount". With technological convergance and prelliferation of new technologies (CF) had a massive viral marketing campaign. The film was firstly introduced to audiences on screen before the summer blockbuster "Tranformers" so thousands of people would see it. The teaser trailer used engima codes to entice the audience and only gave one peice of information away, that being the director "JJ Abrams". Therefore when audiences searched "JJ Abrams" they found what other rmovies he had directed and could guess at the genre of movie. The marketing scheme then saw a teaser trailer and a poster introducing the title 1-18-08 which would suggest the day of release. When people searched on the internet the offical 1-18-08 website was found and this daily released pictures of the film and studio, increasing the amount of people intrested and wanting to find out more. Facebook and Myspace profiles were then created for the characters, which like a timeline posted and shared interactred with the audience leading up to the teaser trailer clip, which in return only intrigued more the mass audience interested in the film. A widget was then created to make the audience download to find out information about the characters, they had to register to get this information therefore (CF) marketers could send e-mails and updates about the film and any other projects, gaining a larger audience. A final trailer was created revealing the name Cloverfield and the film was released in Janurary 2008, with total box office figures of $107 million.

Written by Stephen Hare

Monday, 19 November 2012

Representation of Ethnicity-Hotel Babylon (12D)

 Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of  ethnicity using the following:

• Camera shots, angles, movement and composition
• Editing
• Sound
• Mise en scène
[Total 50]

EAA: Explanation, analysis, argument-20 marks
EG: Use of example-20 marks
T: Terminology-10 marks

Wednesday, 14 November 2012

Representation Of Gender-Primeval

Extract: Primeval Series 2 Episode 3

Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representaion of gender using the following:

  • Camera shots, angles, movement and composition
  • Editing
  • Sound
  • Mise en scene
50 marks

EAA: Explanation, analysis, argument-20 marks
EG: Use of example-20 marks
T: Terminology-10 marks

Monday, 12 November 2012

Representation of Class-Monarch Of The Glen

Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of class using the following:

• Camera shots, angles, movement and composition
• Editing
• Sound
• Mise en scène
[Total 50]

EAA: Explanation, analysis, argument-20 marks
EG: Use of example-20 marks
T: Terminology-10 marks

Friday, 19 October 2012

Half-Term Homework: Media Convergence Essay (12A & 12C)

Q: How is Media Convergence important for audiences and Institutions?

The sample essay in the previous post should help you with a structure and also the content. Remember to write about Attack The Block, Kick-Ass and the film you researche individually.

The question applies to this area from the specification:

  • the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; (how do companies work together to produce, distribute and publicize a film? How can Disney use their size to promote and publicise a film? How can small companies work together to promote their business' when making and promoting a film?)
  • The Hunger Games Presentation by Holly Armitage (12A)

    Wednesday, 17 October 2012

    Film Editing

    Continuity –The viewer should not notice the cuts, and shots should flow together naturally. Hence, the sequence of shots should appear to be continuous.

    Hollywood Montage - a "montage sequence" is a short segment in a film in which narrative information is presented in a condensed fashion.

    Soviet Montage - This style of editing has two functions. The highly political soviet style of the 1920’s which sought to create a new meaning out of seemingly unconnected shots. The audience are very aware of the ‘cuts’.

    Transitions - A ‘transition’ is the term for how an editor moves from one ‘shot’ to another. The use of an inappropriate transition can destroy the mood or pace of a scene.

    As we watch the following transitions write down what you think the effect on the audience is.

    Cross Cutting/parallel editing - Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously.

    A Dissolve - A transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears.

    Match On Action

    Thursday, 11 October 2012

    12A & 12C Case Study

    Your next task is to choose your own film, research that film and compose a Prezi with your findings. Base your research and subsequent presentation on the 12 areas of filmmaking and more importantly the 7 areas from the specification.

    Your film must be from within the last five years (earliest release date September 2007).

    You will present your findings to the class next week. Each presentation needs to be about five minutes long.

    In the comments section below please add your full name, class and film choice. If someone from the same class has already indicated a preference for a film then you need to pick an alternate title. I don't want any repetition.

    Wednesday, 10 October 2012

    Sound Terminology (12D)

    Find clips (use tube chop to edit them) for the following sound terms:

    • diegetic sound
    • non-diegetic sound
    • synchronous sound
    • asynchronous sound
    • sound effects
    • sound motif
    • sound bridge
    • dialogue
    • voiceover
    • direct address
    • sound perspective

    The clip above is from the Film Alfie (2004) starring Jude Law. This is a great example of direct address.

    The clip above from Casino Royale (2006) starring Daniel Craig has a clear example of a sound motif. From about 2 minutes 38 seconds a motif from the James Bond theme can be heard.

    Thursday, 27 September 2012

    Above The Line & Below The Line Advertising

    'Above The Line' is a type of advertising through media such as television, cinema, radio, print, web banners and web search engines to promote brands. This type of communication is conventional in nature and is considered impersonal to customers.

    'Below The Line' is efficient and cost-effective for targeting a limited and specific group. This can take the form of tie in's with other products and companies.

    Monday, 24 September 2012

    Understanding Filmmaking-12A &12C

    In today's lesson you need to create a flow chart tracking all the stages involved in producing a film. You MUST include examples at every stage of the process. You MUST provide an example from a UK and US film at every stage.

    The following link takes you directly to a website which comprehensively explains every stage. Click on image below.

    Monday, 10 September 2012

    Working Title-20 Questions

    1.     Who were the co-founders of Working Title?
    2.     When was the company founded?
    3.     Where is Working Title based?
    4.     Who are the co-chairpersons of WT now?
    5.     What awards have Working Title won?
    6.     How many full time staff does WT employ?
    7.     What is Working Title’s philosophy?
    8.     List 5 box-office hits that Working Title have made.
    9.     List 5 flops that Working Title has made.
    10.  What is Richard Curtis’ relationship with Working Title?
    11.  List 2 famous directors that Working Title have worked?
    12.  What is Hugh Grant’s relationship with Working Title?
    13.   Find out about the Coen Brothers (films, genres, status) and what do they have to do with Working Title?
    14. Who owns 67% of Working Title films? When did this happen? Why did this happen?
    15.   List two of Working Title big blockbuster films and find out their budgets.
    16.  What genre of films is Working Title most famous for?
    17.  What other genres do Working Title films like to make?
    18.  Find out as much as you can about WT2? (when established, films made, budgets, awards)
    19.   What information can you find out about Working Title through their web page?
    20.  Find out one other interesting fact about Working Title that you would like to share with the class.

    Friday, 4 May 2012

    Film 4

    Film 4 are the company responsible for both Attack The Block and Paul. You need to read through this powerpoint from Mrs Somel and use the information in your essays.

    Wednesday, 25 April 2012

    Advantages and disadvantages of new technology in production

    New Technologies example

    Section B

    Tuesday, 24 April 2012

    Selected Key Terms for Institutions and Audiences - The Film Industry

    An institution (in the film industry)
    Definition: any company or organisation that produces, distributes or  exhibits films. The BBC makes films with their BBC Films arm; Channel4's Film Four produces films, Working Title also produce films, as does Vertigo Films, etc. Some institutions need to join with other institutions which distribute films. Vertigo Films is able to distribute its own films, Channel Four distributed Slumdog Millionaire through Pathe. Working Title's distribution partner is Universal, a huge US company which can make, distribute and show films. The type of owner ship within an institution matters as, for instance, Channel 4 and the BBC are able to show their own films at an earlier stage than other films made by other institutions. They are also better placed to cross-promote their in-house films within their media organisations.

    Distribution and Marketing
    Definition: the business of getting films to their audiences by booking them for runs into cinemas and taking them there in vans or through digital downloads; distributors also create the marketing campaign for films producing posters, trailers, websites, organise free previews, press packs, television interviews with the "talent", sign contracts for promotions, competitions, etc. Distributors use their know-how and size to ensure that DVDs of the film end up in stores and on supermarket shelves. Distributors also obtain the BBFC certificate, and try to get films released as the most favourable times of the year for their genre, etc.

    Universal distributed Working Title's The Boat That Rocked; Pathe distributed Film4 and Celadors'  Slumdog Millionaire after the original US distributor, Warner Independent went out of business.

    Definition:  showing films in cinemas or on DVD. Media attention through opening nights and premieres How the audience can see the film: in cinemas, at home, on DVD, through downloads, through television, including premieres, the box office take in the opening weeks; audience reviews which includes those of the film critics, ordinary people, cinemas runs; awards in festivals, The Oscars, BAFTAS, etc.

    The Boat That Rocked opened on wide release in over 400 cinemas in April 2009.  The film flopped at the box office for a number of reasons: the critics' reviews, poor weather putting off cinema goers, and perhaps the lack of a strong female character. The film also flopped on American release in November 2009. However, young people and older people like the film: sales in Morrisons and other supermarkets seem brisk before Christmas as many are buying the DVD as a present to cheer people up during  these dark winter months. Slumdog Millionaire almost never got distribution. Its early US distributor, Warner Independent was a victim of the economic downturn and went out of business. The film's makers then struggled to find a distributor! Then Fox Searchlight stepped up and "the rest is history". The 8 out of 10 Oscar nomination wins ensured that the film has been the greatest British success in awards and in box office for nearly 60 years.

    Definition: The unintended use of an institution’s media text (i.e. a film) by OTHER PEOPLE who use the film or parts of it to form new texts. What happens to a film, etc. after the public get their hands on it using digital technology.

    People unconnected to the institution/ film using WEB 2.0 applications such as YOUTUBE, Blogger, Amazon film message boards, TWITTER, Face-Book, discuss the film or edit parts of together to form a new text which the may then put a new soundtrack to and publish on YOUTUBE, etc. When you add a trailer from a site like YouTube on your blog you have been engaging with exchange.

    Vertical and Horizontal Integration
    Definition: Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution.

    Vivendi Universal have integrated film, music, web and distribution technology into the company, including owning big stakes in cables and wires that deliver these services. Therefore they are vertically integrated because they own all the different companies involved in film, from production to distribution to exhibition. They are also horizontally integrated because they have all the expertise for producing media content under one roof – films, TV, magazines, books, music, games thus being able to produce all the related media content for one film under the same roof (see synergy). This is important for the control the institution has over their product/film.


    Definition: The interaction of two or more agents (institutions/companies) to ensure a larger effect than if they acted independently. This is beneficial for each company through efficiencies in expertise and costs.

    Working Title know how to make films and they have formed a business partnership with Universal, a massive US company, who have the experience and size in the marketplace (cinemas, stores, online, etc.) to distribute them. (They create the marketing campaign to target audiences through posters, trailers, create the film’s website, free previews, television and press interviews featuring “the talent”, drum up press reviews, word of mouth, and determine when a film is released for the best possible audience and the type of release: limited, wide, etc.) Channel Four’s Film 4 and Celador Films (Celador also produce Who Wants to Be A Millionaire and films, too) benefited by pooling their know-how, experience and expertise to jointly produce Slumdog Millionaire. These companies formed a business relationship with France’s Pathe to distribute this film. In the UK Pathe helped create the poster, trailer, website, etc. In the USA the film found another distributor after being nominated for the Oscars.

    Viral Marketing
    Definition: A marketing technique aiming at reproducing "word of mouth" usually on the internet and through existing social networks. YouTube Video pastiches, trailers, interviews with cast members, the director, writer, etc. You can find interviews of “the talent” trying to gain publicity for your case study films on YouTube.
    Guerilla Marketing
    Definition: The use of unconventional and low cost marketing strategies to raise awareness of a product. The aim is usually to create “buzz” and “word of mouth” around a film. Unusual stunts to gain publicity (P.R.) on the film’s opening weekend, etc.

    Sasha Baron Cohen created “buzz” before the release of his film “Borat” by holding fake press conferences. The studio also accessed the popularity of YouTube by releasing the first 4 minutes of the movie on YouTube, a week before it’s release, which can then be sent virally across the nation. At a special viewing of “Bruno” Cohen landed on Eminem “butt first” from the roof MTV Awards venue, dressed in as an angel outfit with rents in the rear end. 

    Media Convergence
    Definition 1: Convergence of media occurs when multiple products come together to form one product with the advantages of all of them.

    More and more films are being marketed on the Internet and on mobile phones. You no longer need even to buy the DVDs or CDs as you can download films and music directly to your laptop, Mac or PC. Blue Ray DVDs can carry more features than ordinary DVDs  and can be played on HD televisions and in home cinemas  for enhanced/cinematic picture quality. You can save films on SKY digital, Free-box digital players, etc. You mobile phone has multiple features and applications. With media and technological convergence this is growing year on year. Play-Stations, X-Boxes and the Wii can can connect with the Internet and you can play video games with multiple players.

    Technological Convergence
    Definition 2: The growing interractive use of digital technology in the film industry and media which enables people to share, consume and produce media that was difficult or impossible just a few years earlier.

    For instance, the use of new software to add special effects in editing; the use of blue-screen; using new types of digital cameras like the one Danny Boyle used in “Slumdog Millionaire” (The Silicon Imaging Camera to shoot high quality film in tight spaces); you can use the Internet to download a film rather than go see it in the cinema; you can watch it on YouTube; you can use special editing programs like Final Cut Pro to edit bits of a film, give it new soundtrack and upload it on YouTube; you can produce illegal, pirate copies on DVDs from downloads and by converting the film’s format; you can buy Blue Ray DVDs with greater compression which allows superior viewing and more features on the DVD; distributors can use digital software to create high concept posters; cinemas can download films to their projection screens and do not have to depend on a van dropping off the film! There are tons of ways in which technological convergence affects the production, distribution, exhibition and exchange by prosumers. ( A prosumer is someone who not only consumes (watches films) but also writes about them the Net, blogs and make films out of them, often uploading them on sites like YouTube, etc.

    A Mainstream Film
    Definition: A high budget film that would appeal to most segments of an audience: the young, boys, girls, teenagers, young people, the middle aged, older people, the various classes in society. Distributors often spend as much or more than the film cost to make when distributing mainstream films that are given wide or universal releases.

     The Boat That Rocked was a mainstream idea and was given the mainstream treatment on wide release. The film flopped at the UK box office on release ( and has not done too well since mid November 2009 on release in the USA. This was mostly because of its poor reviews, particularly from “Time-Out”. However, when young and older audiences see the DVD they generally like the film because of its uplifting storyline and the well-chosen soundtrack.

    Art House Films
    Definition: A low budget independent film that would mostly appeal to an educated, higher class audience who follow unusual genres or like cult directors that few people have heard of. Therefore it is usually aimed at a niche market. Foreign films often come under this category.

    The low budget film, Once (2007) which found a specialised, boutique distributor in Fox Searchlight fits this label. (FOX the mainstream company usually distributes big budget film and blockbusters); So does “Juno” from 2008 which began as a low budget film about teenage pregnancy that the big studios thought too risky to touch – but it found popularity through its touching storyline, engaging music and its Oscar nomination for best script. Like “Slumdog Millionaire” the film crossed over between art-house cinemas and audiences to mainstream ones because of the recognition it received from Canadian film festivals and award ceremonies like Britain’s BAFTAS and the Hollywood’s Oscars.

    Ratings bodies BBFC - The British Board of Film Classification
    How your institutions films are rated will affect audiences in so far as WHO can see them. Remember that sex scenes, offensive language, excessive violence, the use of profanity, etc. can affect the rating and certificate the film receives and therefore affect who is able to see the film.


    Editing Techniques


    Thursday, 29 March 2012

    Representation Of Gender

    Video extract
    TV Drama sequence: Doctor Who, Series 3, Volume 4
    Director: Graham Harper and Colin Teague
    Date: 2007
    Distributor: BBC
    Country: UK
    Extract Location: Episode 3, Chapter 8
    Extract Length: 5 minutes 06 seconds
    Location/Cues: Start: 29:20; End: 34:26

    Answer the question below, with detailed reference to specific examples from the extract only.

    Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of gender using the following:

    • Camera shots, angles, movement and composition
    • Editing
    • Sound
    • Mise en scène

    [50 marks]

    Wednesday, 11 January 2012

    Rankin: covers portfolio

    A gallery of Rankin's magazine covers. A great place to look for ideas. Click on image to access gallery.
    Rankin borrowed heavily from Andy Warhol's screenprint of Elvis Presley.

    Magazine covers-Raygun

    Click on the image to view a small selection of covers from Ray Gun a short lived American magazine (1992-1995).

    The rest of Chris Ashworth's website is worth a look too.

    Guinness surfer presentation